Canada is one of the largest countries in the world, occupying most of the North American continent (territory 9 984 670 km², of which 8.62% is the water surface). In terms of area, Canada ranks second in the world. The multicultural state is inhabited by just over 37.6 million people, with one of the lowest population densities (3.76 people / km²). The country has two official languages: English and French. The capital is Ottawa.
The territory of Canada is washed by three oceans (the Arctic, Pacific and Atlantic), which makes it the absolute leader in the world in terms of the length of the coastline. And leadership is not only about this. In Canada there are:
The relief is presented mainly as a hilly plain. There are mountain ranges up to 2.7 km high (Canadian Cordilleras, Appalachians, Notre Dame massif). Canada is one of the largest producers of mineral raw materials (nickel, zinc, uranium, copper, platinum).
A rich and varied fauna, in the forests there is a pronounced predominance of conifers. Forests cover 45% of the country's territory.
The climate in the country is extremely diverse, as it stretches over 6 time zones:
The country's territory conditionally has cold (arctic and subarctic climate) and warm zones (temperate climate). The lowest temperature in the entire history of Canada was in the Yukon (-63 ˚C), and the snow cover in Quebec reached more than 3 meters. In Vancouver, summer temperatures reach 40 ° C.
Canada is a constitutional monarchy with a parliamentary system. According to the form of government, it is a federation with administrative division into 10 provinces and 3 federal territories. It is included in the group of the leading economically developed countries of the world.
Coordinates: 56°N, 109°W
The provinces of Canada are sovereign administrative units. Their existence is written into the constitution. Today Canada consists of 10 provinces: Alberta, Quebec, British Columbia, Ontario, Manitoba, New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, Newfoundland and Labrador, Prince Edward Island, Saskatchewan. Each province has its own government, parliament, its own budget and its own courts, as well as a lieutenant governor, who is the representative of the queen.
The Canadian Territories (Nunavut, Northwest Territories and Yukon) are administered by the Canadian Federal Parliament.
Niagara Falls is one of the most impressive natural wonders in North America, located on the border of Canada and the United States. Interesting fact: the city in the USA and the city in Canada, located next to the waterfall, in both countries are named the same — Niagara Falls. The first mentions of this amazing waterfall date back to the beginning of the 17th century. The Niagara River, on which Niagara Falls is located, connects Lakes Erie and Ontario, which are part of the Great Lakes of North America.
The large-scale Niagara Falls is a complex of three waterfalls (cascades) that have their own name. From the side of Canada there is a waterfall Horseshoe (Canadian Falls), from the American side — the waterfalls American (width 323 m) and Veil. The width of the Horseshoe is 792 m. It is the widest and most spectacular of Niagara falls, and 90% of the total water volume passes through it. Water falls from a height of 53 meters. Translated from the language of the Indians, Niagara means the rumble of water.
In 1885, the Queen Victoria Niagara Falls Park was founded to preserve a unique natural phenomenon.
The energy of the water flow is efficiently used to generate electricity. Sir Adam Beck 1 and Sir Adam Beck 2 are the most powerful power plants on the Niagara River on the Canadian side. 50% to 75% of the total volume of water through the four tunnels is diverted upstream, passes through hydroelectric turbines and returns to the river below the falls.
Below the waterfalls across Niagara is the graceful Rainbow Bridge, which connects Canada and the United States.
The waterfall is beautiful at any time of the year, so millions of tourists do not miss the opportunity to see its indomitable strength and amazing beauty with their own eyes.
Location: Niagara Falls ON L2G 3L7 Ontario, Canada.
Coordinates: 43°04′41″N, 79°04′33″W
The CN Tower is a visiting card of Toronto (Ontario). This graceful spire with a height of 553.3 meters retained its leadership in the world as the tallest free-standing structure, until 2007. But today, for the Western Hemisphere, the CN Tower remains the tallest unsupported structure. The construction of this telecommunications tower took 2 years and was completed in 1975.
The Canadian “Wonder of the World” is visited by about 1.7 million guests annually.
Location: 301 Front Street West Toronto, Ontario M5V 2T6, Canada
Coordinates: 43°38′33″N, 79°23′13″W
Parliament Hill is located in the heart of the Canadian capital on the south bank of the Ottawa River. Construction of the Parliament Building began in 1859, but a fire in 1916 destroyed all buildings except part of the Parliamentary Library. Today it is a large architectural complex of state buildings in the neo-Gothic style with an area of 88.5 thousand km², rebuilt in 1922 from gray granite. The highest part of the complex is the Clock and Bell Tower of Peace that is a symbol of memory of the lost Canadians in the First World War. It’s height is 92 meters. Outside, the tower building is decorated with carvings and stone figures. The Carillon tower has 53 bells.
The central block of the complex:
The western block. Not available for viewing. The architecture of the original building is emphasized by three towers: the southeast, Lurie Tower and Mackenzie-house.
The eastern block resembles a medieval castle with richly decorated interiors (stone carvings, marble fireplaces, luxurious furniture).
In front of the Parliament building there is a small square on which the Eternal Flame is burning — a symbol of the country's unity. It was established in honor of the 100th anniversary of Canada in 1967. Every morning, guests and residents of the city watch the changing of the guard ceremony. The most important national holidays are celebrated on the square.
Around the administrative buildings, there is a beautiful park with gazebos (for example, the Summer Gazebo in the colonial style), monuments (for example, The Famous Five, dedicated to five women who fought for the voting rights of both sexes) and various sculptures.
Parliament Hill is a favorite place for guests and residents of the city. About 3 million tourists come here annually.
Location: 90 Wellington St, Ottawa, ON K1P 5L1, Canada
Coordinates: 45°25′29″N, 75°41′57″W
Old Montreal is a historic quarter in the center of the second largest city in Canada, Montreal (province of Quebec). In 1964, the bulk of the oldest quarter was recognized as the country's national heritage. The borders of Old Montreal run mainly along the borders of old fortifications. The Museum of Archeology and History on the embankment of the port has an excellent observation deck.
In the south of the historic quarter is Place d'Armes: the main square of Montreal and the old city. The first skyscrapers of the city appeared exactly here: the first high-rise building New York Life Building was erected in 1888 and is made of red sandstone.
The most populous and lively place in the quarter is the Place Jacques Cartier. The famous French navigator who initiated the colonization of Canada. Above the square, the building of the town hall rushed into the sky, which is a striking example of French architecture. Next to the town hall is a majestic column — a monument to Admiral Nelson, which is a twin of the Nelson monument in London. The monument to the French officer Paul Chaomedie de Maisonneuve, the founder of Montreal (the city of Mary), is adjacent to the Notre Dame de Montreal Basilica.
The Old Town has a huge number of attractions that are very popular with tourists: a large public park, Champ de Mars, 7 museums, Notre Dame de Bonsecours chapel, Bonsecours market, preserved colonial mansions and much more. About 11 million tourists visit the heart of Montreal every year.
Location: Montreal, Quebec, Canada
Coordinates: 45°30′18″N, 73°33′18″W
The Basilica of Notre Dame de Montreal (Notre Dame Cathedral) is a majestic Neo-Gothic cathedral located in Old Montreal on the main square, Place d'Armes. The cathedral was built of limestone in 1892 on the site of an old 17th century church, and has become the largest religious building in all of North America.
The height of the bell towers of the ancient basilica is 69 m. On Sundays, the melodic ringing of bells is heard throughout the district.
The interior is decorated with wall paintings, fine wood carvings, gilding, stained glass windows and wooden figures, so Notre Dame de Montreal is rightfully considered one of the most beautiful cathedrals in Canada and has the status of a national monument of the country.
Location: 275 Rue Notre-Dame Est, Montréal, Québec, Canada
Coordinates: 45°30′16″N, 73°33′22″W
Gros Morne is a unique national park with great geological diversity located on the west coast of Newfoundland. Founded in 1973. Its total area is 1.8 thousand km².
Magnificent natural landscapes conquer the hearts of millions of tourists: glacial valleys, sea bays, high cliffs, waterfalls and fjords, high plateaus and lakes. The highest point is Mount Gros Morne is 806 m high, to the top of which there is a trail for those who are strong in body and spirit.
A feature of the reserve is the opportunity to see with your own eyes the result of continental drift: shifted tectonic plates and rocks of the Earth's mantle, which were exposed on the surface. The rich flora and fauna, forests of balsam fir, the opportunity to see whales (in the month of May), clean air, numerous arts festivals (for example, Music Trails, Tales and Tunes, theatrical Gros Morne, Woody Point Writers Festival) make visiting the park a popular tourist destination.
In 1987, the Gros Morne nature reserve was included in the UNESCO World Heritage List.
Location: Gros Morne National Park, Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada
Coordinates: 49°36′45″N, 57°45′10″W
The Thousand Islands Tourist Region is located at the source of the St. Lawrence River (northeast of Lake Ontario) and is an entire archipelago of islands covering an area of approximately 2,000 km². The archipelago stretches 80 km along the Canadian-US border between Brockville and Kingston and has about 1,800 islands ranging in size from small tracts of land to 100 km². ⅔ of the islands belong to Canada. The depth of the river between the St. Lawrence Islands can reach 65 m.
Natural attraction is the national park “Thousand Islands” which includes only 20 of the most picturesque islands. Almost all of the islands are inhabited.
The largest and most populous island of the archipelago is Wolfe Island (29 km long, 9 km wide, population 1400).
Boldt Castle of the early XX century was built on the most famous island Heart Island. This place is associated with the romantic but sad love story of multimillionaire George Boldt and his wife. Today the castle houses a museum. The island itself is very beautiful and resembles a heart in its shape.
The famous castle of the world famous Singer Corporation is located on the Dark Island. The castle is open to tourists.
The Hub Island, with an area of only 306 m², is the smallest inhabited island in the world. Only one house of the Sizeland family was built on it.
Also one of the main attractions of these places is the International Bridge, built in 1938 and connecting the two countries.
The Thousand Islands Park is included in the list of unique natural phenomena of the biosphere and is included in the UNESCO list.
Location: Ontario, Mallory Town, Thousand Islands Parkway, 1121, Canada
Coordinates: 44°20′02″N, 75°59′41″W
The Canadian Rockies are the northern part of Pacific Cordillera in the Yukon Territory (western Canada). The Rocky Mountains stretch from north to south for 603 km and cover an area of 93.4 km². The highest point is Mount Robson (3954 m), the lowest point is the Liard River at an altitude of 305 m above sea level. Mostly the mountains are covered with forests. Magnificent mountains, glaciers, mountain valleys with turbulent rivers, beautiful lakes, hot springs, a variety of wildlife — all this creates a unique landscape.
Four National Parks: Yoho, Banff, Jasper and Kootenay are UNESCO World Heritage Sites (Canadian Rockies Parks):
Coordinates: 53°06′38″N, 119°09′21″W
Canada has 10 major international airports and about 300 regional and local airports. The list of the National Airport System includes 26 airports, the passenger traffic of which is stable and at least 200 thousand people per year, or serving regular flights between the capitals of the provinces and territories of Canada.
The transport system of Canada includes about 72 thousand railways in total.
The Canadian National Railway Company is the largest rail network in North America, with a total track length of 30,000 km. The history of the сompany dates back to 1919. Today it is the only transcontinental network in all of North America. Recently, passenger traffic has dropped drastically, and entire sections of railways are being closed in many provinces (for example, Vancouver Island no longer has rail links since 2019). Over the past 30 years, the length of the railway track has almost halved. About 400 trains of the national railways continue to carry passengers on important routes in the country.
Three main routes serving the direction from west to east (The Canadian, The Corridor, The Ocean), from which there are branches.
Today in Canada there are about 1.1 million km of roads (of which 415 thousand are paved, and 627 are unpaved). 17 thousand km are highways.
Road transport is the leader in passenger and freight transport in the country, generating huge income (35% of the GDP of the state's transport industry).
Officially, the National Highway System of Canada maintains three road classifications: Core, Feeder, and Northern / Remote.
Good quality roads are made with an ecology in mind and using modern technologies that increase the strength of the road surface. Repair of destroyed areas is carried out as soon as possible.
Major automotive road systems:
The small Canadian town of Churchill is world famous. It is located in the north of the sparsely populated province of Manitoba on the Hudson Bay coast, surrounded by wildlife. You can only get to Churchill by plane or train. Tourists from all over the world come to this region to see the harsh but beautiful arctic landscapes, admire the northern lights, see whales from the shores of the bay and meet polar bears.
The abundance of bears has become one of the engines for the development of ecotourism, but, on the other hand, a real misfortune for local residents who are trying to find a compromise with their large white neighbors.
There are only about 30 thousand polar bears left in the world, 10 thousand of which live on the ice of Hudson Bay. There are only two reasons for the bears to leave the ice for the mainland: the birth of offspring and the lack of food. One of the three maternity dens in the world, which are built by females, is located just outside the city of Churchill. During the summer months, when the ice in the bay melts, hunger drives animals in search of food closer to human settlements. There is a massive migration of animals, which is dangerous. Therefore, all houses and cars in the city are kept open so that there is an opportunity to hide.
Churchill has the only polar bear prison in the world, established in 1982 on the site of a former military base to keep animals that came to the city. For a month, personnel are trying to instill a rejection of the city to the animals so that they no longer return to it. For some time they are not fed, and then they are put to sleep and taken away by helicopter to a safe place far from the city.
Torn away from the world, the town with a surprisingly friendly population and difficult everyday life was named the world capital of polar bears and the pearl of Manitoba.
Location: Churchill, Manitoba, Canada
Coordinates: 58°46′05″N, 94°10′10″W