Coordinates: 22°23′N, 102°02′W
Mexico (officially: United States of Mexico) is the world's largest Spanish-speaking country, located in North America and covering an area of about 2 M km2 (13th in the world), including about 6 th km2 of islands in the Pacific Ocean. In the North Mexico is bordered by the United States, Guatemala and Belize in the South-East. Western and Eastern sides of Mexico are washed by the Pacific and Atlantic oceans. The total shoreline length is about 9 th km and includes the Caribbean coast, Mexican and Californian gulfs.
Population: 130 M and Mexico ranks 10th in the world by population with density 62 people/km2. The ethnic composition is very diverse (56 different ethnic groups). However, the Government has a very strict policy aimed at the homogenization of nationalities under one supra-ethnic group –- the Mexicans. And now the majority of the country's residents consider themselves to be Mexicans
Mexico is a mountainous country with a unique geographical location, whose territory is occupied by the Mexican Highlands. It is one of the world leaders in the reserves of valuable minerals (oil, coal, natural gas, iron ore, etc.). Mexico is one of the most developed countries in Latin America with a high human development index. It occupies the 9th place in the world in terms of production. Its GDP is about $ 2500 billion and about $ 20,000 per capita.
Mexico is a country with a rich history and a rich historical heritage, which is why it attracts millions of tourists every year (more than 45 million in 2019). The United Mexican States is a federal presidential republic with 31 States (an administrative divisions) and one federal district. The capital is Mexico City. The country's territory is located in four time zones (from UTC -8 to UTC -5) and almost all of its territory is switching to summer time.
The climate is tropical and subtropical with pronounced seasonality. The formation of weather conditions is strongly influenced by the terrain, the proximity of the oceans and the large extent of the country's territory. That’s why the average temperatures vary very much. On the tropic coasts the average temperature is 24-28°; at an altitude up to 2000 m – from 16 to 20°C, and in mountainous areas above 2500 m the temperature in winter is +2, in summer + 15 on everage. So the tourist activity is determined by the regionality and by the change of dry and wet seasons.
Each state of Mexico has its own constitution and is divided into municipalities, the number of which depends on the size of the state and the number of people living in it. A special political entity located almost in the center of the country is the federal district, the central part of the capital of Mexico City. Its area is only 1,5 th km2 and a population of about 9 M inhabitants. It is the political, cultural, and economic center of Mexico and the richest Mexican state.
The largest and most famous states:
The poorest States of Mexico are Guerrero, Oaxaca, and Chiapas. The richest, except for the federal district of Mexico, are Nuevo Leon, Coahuila, Sonora, Baja California and Colima. On the great peninsula of Yucatan – the cradle of ancient civilizations, located states: Yucatan, Quintana Roo and Campeche. As a consequence of the climate and terrain of the California Peninsula, the state of Baja California Sur is the most low populated in Mexico (just over 637 th people with a density of 8.7 people/km2). In addition to the above, the list of Mexican states includes: in the Central Mexican State of Aguascalientes, state of Mexico, michoacán, State of San Luis Potosi with the world famous Cave of Swallows, the state of Zacatecas, Guanajuato, mountainous state of Durango, the States of Hidalgo and Querétaro, with great mountain elevation changes; a small State of Morelos, the center of the Mexican revolution, one of the highest States of Puebla, in which there are four the highest points of the country; one of the most densely populated State of Tlaxcala (299 people / km2); in the west of the country: Nayarit State – the leader in tobacco production, Sinaloa state with a coastline of 656 km; the state of Tabasco in the south with the highest precipitation rates; State of Tamaulipas in the North-Eastern.
The "City of the Gods" is one of the oldest and largest Indian cities of the pre-Columbian era, one of the six largest cities in the ancient world. Its age is about 2000 years. The city is located 50 km north-east of Mexico City (Teotihuacan de Arista). The area of the settlement was 26-28 km2, and the population was more than 125 th people. Probably it was a multi-ethnic city.
The central part of the city, which has perfect geometric shapes, is occupied by the “Citadel": an inner square that could accommodate up to 100 th people, surrounded on four sides by large pyramids on platforms. The Temple-pyramid of the Feathered Serpent QuetzalcoatlIn is placed in the center of the Citadel Square. The main constructions of the ancient city are the pyramid of the Sun and the pyramid of the Moon.
The Pyramid of the Sun is the largest part of the temple complex of Teotihuacan and one of the largest in Mesoamerica, and is the third largest among the pyramids in the world. Located on the Path of the Dead between the Pyramid of the Moon and the Citadel (height 64 m, base area 225x225 m). Under the two-level pyramid, a man-made tunnel was made, which led to a cave directly under the center of the pyramid in the depth of 6 m.
The Pyramid of the Moon is located at the northern end of the Path of the Dead and is built on a small elevation, thanks to which the tops of both pyramids are on the same level. The height of the pyramid is about 42 meters, the length of the base is 150 m. To the north of the main complex are the ancient Aztec palaces Tetitla and Atetelco with beautifully preserved frescoes: 120 walls of the Tetitla Palace are decorated with frescoes depicting Tlaloc, God of rain, thunder, snakes and eagles. Today, Teotihuacan is the largest archaeological complex with a museum, which is visited annually by more than 3.5 million tourists from all over the world.
Location: Ecatepec Pirámides km.22 + 600, Zona Arqueológica de Teotihuacan, 55800 México
Coordinates: 19°41′33″N, 98°50′38″W
Chichen Itza is an ancient sacred city of the Itza people, located 120 km from the city of Merida in the north of the Yucatan Peninsula. The political and cultural center of the Maya was founded around 455 АС. Today, Chichen Itza is a treasure trove of Maya-Toltec architectural monuments. On the territory of 83 ha the tourists could find the following ancient constructions:
Chichen Itza is a UNESCO World Heritage Site. And in 2007, according to a survey of more than 100 million people conducted by the New Open World Corporation, the city was recognized as one of the new seven wonders of the world. The Chichen Itza complex is open to the public, and in the evening, visitors can enjoy a light show.
Location: Chichen Itza 97170, Yucatán, México.
Coordinates: 20°40′59″N, 88°34′07″W
One of the most memorable and impressive natural wonders of Mexico is the Copper Canyon National Park, which is located in the southwestern part of Chihuahua on the Tarahumara hills. The canyon is a chain of six interconnected canyons formed by six rivers flowing into the Gulf of California. The total area is about 65 thousand km², and the depth is from 1000 m to 1879 m (Urique Canyon), which exceeds the depth of the Grand Canyon (1857 m).
In the canyons, you can observe four different climatic zones at once with a wide variety of flora and fauna (many rare species of animals and more than 290 species of birds), numerous magnificent waterfalls and hot springs. The most famous sources of Recowata are near the town of Creel.
One of the amazing sights of the Copper Canyon is the extraordinary Raramuri Indians known as the Tarahumara. This is one of the largest traditional communities of American Indians in all of North America, who are slow to introduce the benefits of civilization into their lives and for whom running is still a natural mode of transportation.
In the Candameña Canyon there are two of the highest waterfalls in Mexico – Piedra Volada Falls (366 m) and Basaseachi (246 m).
From the Copper Canyon, there are three famous Valleys: Valley of the Frogs, Valley of Mushrooms, and Valley of the Monks.
You can see all the natural splendor from the windows of the comfortable Chepe train, which runs along the 655 km railway line (about 40 bridges and 80 tunnels), connecting the Pacific coast and Chihuahua city.
The Barrancas del Cobre Adventure Park, located next to Divisadero, offers its visitors:
The most comfortable time to visit the Copper Canyon is from early spring to early summer and from late summer to late autumn.
Location: Sierra Madre Occidental, Chihuahua state, México.
Coordinates: 27°30′58″N, 107°45′57″W
Cenote Dos Ojos (from Spanish: "Two Eyes") is part of the submerged anchialine cave system located on the Yucatan Peninsula, on the Caribbean coast south of Playa del Carmen and north of Tulum. Today 82 km of the cave system has been explored, and 28 entrances to the cenotes have been discovered. Dos Ojos is among the leaders among the longest underwater cave systems in the world. The deepest known cave is located in the Dos Ojos system. It is a passageway in Quintana Roo at a depth of 119.1 m. Dos Ojos, named for its amazing natural architecture, is two adjacent cenotes that are connected into one large cave area. The purest water, visible through which is 200 meters, has a temperature of +25 throughout the year. The first cenote is located along the open area and has the large space for swimming around the natural columnsж. The second is a whole system of passages and caves. So the Cenotes are a very popular place for diving enthusiasts.
Location: México, Tulum, Cenote Dos Ojos, 77780 Tulum
Coordinates: 20°19′29″N, 87°23′31″W
Cozumel (Swallow Island) is an island in the Caribbean Sea, located 20 km off the east coast of the Yucatan Peninsula. It is the largest island of Mexico in the Atlantic basin and the third among all the islands of Mexico (about 500 km2). Most of the island's territory is uninhabited and covered with jungle, only 3% is occupied by a sandy coastal strip. The island is bordered with the world's second largest coral reef – the Mesoamerican Barrier Reef with a length of more than 1126 km. The mainland is connected to Cozumel by ferry service, air service (Cozumel International Airport) and cruise ships (port of Cozumel). Every year, more than 4.3 million people visit the island of Swallows: there is a lot to see here at any time of the year.
In the south of the island there is a huge national park Chankanaab with magnificent nature, many birds and animals, a botanical garden with more than 450 rare plants, a large dolphinarium and preserved remnants of the Mayan heritage.
The legendary lighthouse, built in 1901 in the eco-park of Punta Sur in the south of the Island, became a museum of marine life. One of the most attractive sightseeing spots of the Park is also the Laguna de Colombia where crocodiles and birds live.
The Museo de la Isla de Cozumel is located in the only city on the island of San Miguel. The museum holds a unique collection of Mayan artifacts, and makes exhibitions of the modern life of the Island, its flora and fauna.
Nowadays Cozumel is a paradise for novice divers because of the abundance of good diving schools. So divers-newcomers could enjoy the beauty of the underwater world of the Caribbean Sea. It is one of the TOP 3 best places in the world for diving.
The archaeological excavations of San Gervasio is a temple complex in the center of the island, which is a splendid monument of the pre-Columbian Mayan civilization.
As the beaches of Cozumel: Paradise Beach is the most popular beach with a huge amount of entertainment and Playa Palancar is located on the quietest western side of the island.
Coordinates: 20°30′N, 86°57′W
The city of Guanajuato (translated from the indigenous language as "city of the frog hills”) is built on hills and is surrounded by hills from all sides. Founded in the 16th century, Guanajuato has been a significant city in the international economy and in world history. In the XVIII century, it became the world center of silver production, which earned the title of "silver city”, and played a key role in the struggle for the independence of Mexico.
Guanajuato is a labyrinth city, without squares and wide streets, with many narrow pedestrian streets, stairs, tunnels and with a bright color palette of houses.
Today this beautiful city with its unique architecture is famous for the annual international art festival of Servantino, which has been held since 1972 and attracts a huge number of music lovers from all over the world. The festival is held in October and has more than 70 venues, both in concert halls and on the streets.
There are three active theaters in the city. Juarez Theater is the most luxurious and beautiful theater in Mexico.
In the vicinity of Guanajuato, the tourists would visit ancient mines, estates, the Dam de la Oya (Presa de la Olla) and the Museum of Mummies (Museo de las Momias). In 1988, the historic center of Guanajuato was declared a World Heritage Site and included in the UNESCO World Heritage List.
Coordinates: 21°01′04″N, 101°15′24″W
There are 76 registered commercial airports in Mexico, 58 of which provide the entire volume of passenger traffic in the country.
Aeropuerto Internacional de la Ciudad de México or AICM
The main airport in Mexico City, the second largest in Latin America. 13 km east of the city center. The aero complex has: 2 runways, 2 passenger terminals and 1 cargo terminal. Offers direct flights to more than 100 destinations around the world with 30 airlines. The carrying capacity is 32 million people per year.
Capitan Carlos Leon S/N Col. Penon de los Baños, C.P.15620, Mexico City, Mexico
Coordinates: 19°26′10″N, 99°04′19″W
Aeropuerto Internacional de Cancún
The second most important air hub in Mexico. One of the busiest airports in Mexico and Latin America. The capacity is 20 million passengers. Located 16 km from the city of Cancun
Cancun International Airport, Carretera Cancun-Chetumal KM 22, Cancun, Q. Roo, Mexico
Coordinates: 21°02′12″N, 86°52′37″W
Guadalajara International Airport
The third busiest. Serves as a hub for Aeromexico. It is one of the operated by Grupo Aeroportuario del Pacifico (GAP). Located 16 km south of the city of Guadalajara. Serves about 48 thousand domestic, 36 thousand international and 3 thousand charter flights per year.
Road to Chapala Kilometr 17,5 Guadalajara, Mexico
Coordinates: 20°31′19″N, 103°18′40″W
Monterrey Del Norte International Airport
To a greater extent, it serves the general passenger traffic: 80% of the passenger traffic is domestic flights. A modern airport serving over 300 flights to over 35 destinations in Mexico, North America and Europe.
Carretera a Nuevo Laredo Km 1006, 66600 Ciudad Apodaca, Nuevo Leon, Mexico
Coordinates: 25°46′42″N, 100°06′23″W
Aeropuerto Internacional General Abelardo L. Rodríguez
The second most important northern airport in the country. Located in Tijuana, Lower California. The capacity is up to 10 million passengers per year and up to 360 flights per day.
AP 447,CP 22300 Tijuana BC,
Mexico, Carretera Aeropuerto – Meza de Otay, CP 22300 Tijuana, Baja California, México
Coordinates: 32°32′27″N, 116°58′12″W
General Juan N. Álvarez International Airport
Commercial civil airport located 26 kilometers southeast of the city of Acapulco de Juarez. The main passenger traffic is flights to Benito Juarez International Airport, to cities in the USA and Canada. It is included in the list of 15 most important airports in Mexico.
Apartado Postal 65, Acapulco, México
Coordinates: 16°45′25″N, 99°45′14″W
Aeropuerto Internacional Manuel Crescencio Rejón
The second most important in the Yucatan Peninsula: it is the busiest in the ASUR network in terms of cargo transportation and the second busiest in terms of passenger traffic. The capacity is more than 2 million passengers per year. Serves local and international flights.
97291 Mérida, Yucatán, México
Coordinates: 20°56′13″N, 89°39′28″W
Railway transport in Mexico has its own characteristics due to the difficult terrain. These are mainly cargo transportation (80%) and short tourist routes within the country. The length of the railways is only 27 thousand km.
In cities, the railway system is represented by metro and tram lines.
Passenger transportation by train includes several routes:
Mexico's largest road network in Latin America has a length of more than 366 thousand km, of which almost 117 thousand km are paved. A total of 10,000 kilometers of roads have four traffic lanes. Federal highways and expressways never cross the city, and toll expressways (Cuota) tend to become bypasses. Free roads (Libre) are not of high quality coverage, mostly single-lane and with a lot of speed limits. In cities, even large ones, one-way streets prevail.
The northern part of the Pan American Highway, which is declared in the Guinness Book of Records as the longest highway in the world (30,000 km), passes through a number of large cities in the country (Monterrey, Mexico City, Oaxaca, etc.).
The Sonoran Desert is one of the hottest deserts in North America, occupying an impressive area of more than 260 th km2 of the territory of the American states of Arizona and California and the Mexican states of Baja California and Sonora. It is considered one of the most beautiful deserts in the world. About 26% of the desert area is occupied by small hills, and powerful mountain ranges grow around the desert itself. The climate is characterized by high levels of solar radiation and very low humidity. The daily temperature range can reach up to 40 degrees.
The sandy and rocky subtropical desert is a home for more than 60 species of mammals, 350 species of birds, 20 species of amphibians and more than 100 species of reptiles, and more than 2 thousand species of plants.
One of the main attractions of the desert is the giant Saguaro cactus, which can reach a weight of up to 10 tons and reach an age of up to 250 years. An equally well-known cactus is peyote (Lophophora Williamsii). The peyote became famous for the fact that the natives worship this type of cactus for a deity and use it in various rituals in the form of a specially prepared drink. This drink contains the substance mescaline from the pulp of peyote stems and which, accordingly, gives a hallucinogenic effect. The native Indians still use it in their sacred ceremonies. However, its cultivation and use is prohibited in many countries.
Most people have heard about this desert and the famous cactus from the books of the American writer Carlos Castaneda about the nagual Don Juan and the adventures of Carlos himself.
Coordinates: 32°15′36″N, 112°55′34″W